Updated: Nov 24, 2019
In one of our recent blogs, Insects Mistaken for Bed Bugs, we talked about how difficult it is for most people to recognize various bugs. As I also said in the blog, you shouldn’t feel bad if your insect-identification skills aren’t exactly, well, top notch. After all, few of us can readily tell a Blacklegged Tick from a Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, or a Cockroach from a Giant Water Bug.
Given our collective lack of knowledge it makes sense that we also have a problem identifying bug bites. Not knowing a Hover Fly from a Paper Wasp might not be essential, but being able to identify (from the look of the mark alone) what insect attacked you can be important. Especially if you’ve been bitten by a tick or a spider.
What follows then, is a brief primer on how to identify bug bites, and what to do about them.
One caveat here: I am not a physician or an entomologist, so please don’t take what follows as medical advice. It isn’t, and it’s not meant to be. It’s just a guide. Nothing more. So, if you have been bitten or stung by a bug and you don’t know which, consult your doctor immediately. There are no prizes for taking a ‘wait-and-see’ attitude.
Small, wingless, and extremely agile, fleas are parasites that depend on the blood of their host(s) for sustenance. And, like many other parasites, they will feed on you just as readily as your dog or cat ̶ or the squirrels in the attic, if they’re available. In other words, they’re ‘equal opportunity’ pests and will take their next meal wherever they find it.
Even to the untrained eye, a flea bite is rarely confused with that of a bed bug. Flea bites generally appear as small, red bumps in clusters of three or four, usually in straight lines. In some cases, the bite site might be surrounded by a red corona, or aureole. Like most parasitic bugs, fleas tend to zero in on their own favorite parts of the human body, e.g. the armpits, the groin, the waist, or the elbows and knees.
Bed Bug Bites
Bed bugs can be found virtually anywhere: homes, offices, retail stores, restaurants and delis, ERs and other health care facilities, even on trains and in taxis. There's no end to the places these ‘interlopers’ can go, often brought in by the most unsuspecting of carriers ̶ us!
Some of us are lucky enough to be immune to bed bug bites; the rest of us, alas, are rarely so lucky. If you are bitten (usually at night, when you are sleeping) you will probably see a red, swollen mark with a dark spot at the center. You’ll also probably see a number of bites and they will be extremely itchy! But try not to scratch them (easier said than done, I know) since they can quickly become infected.
Mites are really quite small, which not only makes it hard to detect their presence, but also makes it difficult for people who’ve been bitten to identify the source of the ‘assault.’ Fortunately, mite bites are usually harmless, although they can sometimes cause swelling and pain.
Like flea bites, mite bites are also hard to identify. However, if you develop red, rash-like marks on your skin and they quickly become inflamed, chances are you’ve been on the wrong end of a people/mite interaction. Once irritated, these bumps can become itchy and painful, eventually becoming swollen or blistered.
If bed bug and/or flea bites rate an eight on the Yuk Factor Scale’, then scabies definitely rates an 11. The problem is that scabies and bed bug bites look quite similar, and it’s hard for most people to differentiate between the two. Both are parasites, of course; but bed bugs feed on the surface of the human skin, whereas scabies tunnel under the skin, where they feed and lay their eggs!
What makes this even worse is that once the eggs have hatched, they tend to burrow back under the skin of the host, thus setting up the whole nasty cycle again. Scabies burrows look like grayish-white, raised lines. And if you detect them, get to your doctor right away! Apart from being utterly gross, scabies is highly contagious, so you can give it to virtually anyone with whom you come into contact.
If you live in the suburbs or an urban area and you think you’re insulated from the predations of the many kinds of ticks there are, think again. You’re not! Not only do ticks spread a number of diseases ̶ Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Heartland virus, Powassan disease, Tickborne Relapsing Fever (TBRF), and Tularemia, to name but a few ̶ but they are also responsible for the spread of Lyme Disease!
“Most tick bites,’ says the Mayo Clinic, “are painless and cause only minor signs and symptoms, such as redness, swelling or a sore on the skin.” In fact, the majority of tick bites are fairly straightforward and rarely transmit diseases. But a bite may still create a red papule at the site and, in rare cases, may bring on hypersensitivity. The main problem is that there are so many different types of ticks, each with their own disease vector, but there are certain ticks whose bite produce unmistakable skin lesions. For instance, if a large rash develops at the site and it takes on a bull's-eye pattern, it may be a sign of Lyme disease. Plus, if the tick remains on the skin or the head is still embedded under the skin, best to get yourself to your doctor (or emergency care facility) as soon as you can.
These flying pests are among the most wide-spread insects on the plant and are largely harmless, for the most part. However, they can pose a threat when it comes to the transmission of certain diseases, such as Chikungunya, Dengue, Malaria, West Nile Virus and Zika Virus, to name but a few. Again, they are parasites, living off the blood of their host(s), which is how they manage to spread the viral and bacterial organism that they do.
According to our old friends at the Mayo Clinic, mosquito bite signs include:
A puffy, white and reddish bump that appears a few minutes after the bite
A hard, itchy, reddish-brown bump, or multiple bumps, appearing a day or so after the bite or bites
Small blisters instead of hard bumps
Dark spots that look like bruises
If, however, you develop a fever, headache, body aches or other signs of infection after being bitten, contact your doctor.
As you might expect, there are many, many types of spiders running around North America. The number of species has recently been put at 3,000; worldwide that number climbs to 35,000! And, because they’re all so different types ̶ Black Widow spiders, Brown Recluse spiders, Common House spiders, Jumping spiders, and Wolf spiders, among others ̶ their individual bites can look quite different.
According to one reliable source:
“Although all spiders are different, spider bites do share some common symptoms.
Most appear as tiny, red bumps on your skin that are sometimes painful and itchy.
For most people, that’s as bad as it gets. A few people do have allergic reactions to
spider bites. That might include swelling around your face, itching over a larger
area, and even trouble breathing.”
Generally speaking, a spider bite looks a lot like any other bug bite; in fact, you may not even notice that you’ve been bitten. That is certainly not true for bites from Black Widow or Brown Recluse spiders. Those will certainly require a quick visit to the doctor! If you’re not sure which kind of spider bit you, go anyway. You can’t be too careful!
Bees, Wasps or Hornet Stings
As regular readers of this blog will know, I’m a big fan of bees! In addition to giving us honey, which they’ve done for millennia, bees are essential to agriculture because of their activities as pollinators. Without them we’d be lost! However, bees can sting, just like their relatives, wasps and hornets. So, I sympathize with those of you who don’t share my enthusiasm. If you’re stung by a bee its barbed stinger will remain lodged in your skin. You should remove it as soon as possible, especially since the stinger can release venom for anywhere up to a minute after the bee has stung you. This is not true for wasps and hornets. They are able to sting you and retract their stingers without harming themselves. Alas, bees die after stinging you.
Sting sites will therefore look different according to which of these types of insects have attacked you, and your reaction will, again, depend on the species and your own particular sensitivity to such stings. Medical experts divide reaction types into three: mild, moderate, and severe.
Levels of Bee Sting Reactions
MILD REACTION: You will see a red welt and cause slight swelling at the sting site.
MODERATE REACTION: Look for extreme redness at the bite site and swelling that usually continues for a day or two.
SEVERE REACTION: For people with an allergy, a bee sting can quickly lead to anaphylaxis, which is potentially life-threatening and requires emergency treatment. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include: Hives and itching; difficulty breathing, swelling of the throat and/or tongue; a weak or rapid pulse; nausea, vomiting or diarrhea; and loss of consciousness.
How Sterifab Can Help
Sterifab is great for getting rid of bugs on furniture, floors, carpets and more. The Sterifab bug spray is a multi-purpose pesticide, insecticide, sanitizer, and deodorant that not only kills a wide rage of insects, but it also functions as a disinfectant, mildewcide, fungicide, bacteriostatic, and fungistatic. (Just make sure not to spray it right on your bug bites or stings, or directly on a person or pet.)